He was Earl of More and Raumdahl in Norway, and in 888, he obtained from King Harold a grant of the Orkney and Shetland islands. The far right Nationalist Action Party (MHP with its leader Devlet Bahçeli, joined hands with the AKP and Erdoan in pushing for the April 16 constitutional amendments that render parliament powerless. The fact that the Islamists had replaced the left as the voice of the people helped maintain a parliamentary system, as the passive revolution that they accomplished during the 1980s and 1990s ensured that the popular classesworkers and peasantsdid not rise to challenge the established. The introduction of an executive presidency that makes parliament irrelevant is thus fundamentally in accordance with raison détat, and not the simple expression of Erdoans power hunger. Journalists are routinely accused of abetting the cause of either the outlawed Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)the separatist Kurdish organization that has fought an insurgency against the Turkish state since 1984or the cause of the Muslim cleric Fethullah Gülen, Erdoans erstwhile ally, effectively exiled in Pennsylvania.